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      • WIS Chemistry Lab AP # 21 Bleach Archer

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      Archer G11 Partner: Judy

      March 29, 2012 Analysis of Commercial Bleach

      Purpose: The real purpose of this laboratory is to quantify sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) versus commercial bleach. This can certainly be done by the formation of triiodide ions. To make the measurement more accurate, starches were added to define each end point of the solution. The advantage of this laboratory is that the market can use these methods to determine the amount of NaClO in a competing commercial bleach and improve it. Hypothesis: The hypothesis is certainly that the precise definition of NaClO in commercial bleachescan be completed. When acidified iodide ion is mixed with a hypochlorite solution, new iodide is oxidized to iodine, forming a complex triiodide, which gives the solution its main red-brown color. Since the titration endpoint for all triiodides is difficult to determine, starches are added to bring the solution to a dark blue color. If no starches have been added, the color should change from yellow to transparent. The difference between the two colors is quite difficult to tell, so starch was added to change the dye from yellow-red-blue. This makes it easier to determine the end point. Materials: Distilled water 5% strong detergent (NaClO) 3M hydrochloric acid (HCl) p 0.100 M sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O3) Starch solution 2% potassium iodide (KI) burette burette clamp ring holder small pipette straight pipette 0.0001 g precision spatula glass washer rubber spatula 125 ml Erlenmeyer flask, size 2, rubber stopper, stirrer bar, 10 ml cylinder, 25 ml beaker

      Procedure: 1.) Measure 5 ml of solid NaClO in a 125 ml Erlenmeyer flask.

      Quantity 100 ml 5 ml 6 ml100 ml 3 dropper bottles 1 burette 6 g each 5 burette clip 1 ring support single funnel 6 pipettes 1 scale approximately Three wash cups 1 spatula 1 rubber spatula 6 bottles 1 silicone stopper 1 stirrer 1 cylinder i beaker

      Archer G11 2.) Add 95 ml distilled water to the flask 3.) Massage with 2 g of solid KI base 4.) Transfer 25 cc of diluted NaClO to another person’s flask into a 125 ml Erlenmeyer flask 5.) Repeat step Et 3 8 two more times 6.) Label the vial: 1, try, try 3. 7.) Place the solid KI G ii in the vial of experiment 1. 8.) Shake the flask completely to dissolve the KI 9.) Work in a fume hood, shake the entire solution 10. ) Add 2 cc of 3M HCl to the bulk of the flask while shaking 11.) Solution that turns reddish brown 12.) Rinse one distilled burette with water 13.) Rinse. burette a with 0.100 M Na2S2O3 14.) Attach burette a to the corresponding ring holder 15.) Fill all burettes with 0 0.100 M Na2S2O3 until the volume exceeds 0 ml tube 16.) Insert 25 ml tip into the burette 17.) Rotate the burette cap p Continue until the solution penetrates into 25 ml of the solution. 18.) Unscrew all the caps when the volume is Na2S2. O3 reaches 0 ml 19) Titrate the solution in the entire experiment 1 flask until the color of the purifier changes from reddish brown to clear 20.) Add the starch solution drop by drop to the experiment 1 vial. 25.) the solution should turn azure 22.) Shake vial 23.) Titrate the solution in the test vial until the blue color disappears and disappears during the day.) Record the last search for the burette 25.) Repeat step 7 for 24 Test 2 and Test or better results in the vial: during the first titration, the solution changes color from red-brown to brown-orange and then turns yellow. The starch solution cannot be stored for a long time, it is a little sticky. The blue color after building up the strength is the blue of the sunset. The solution is very similar to ink. During the next titration, the blue color changes back to orange and then yellow when much more Na2S2O3 is added.

      The ratio of marine hypochlorite (NaClO-) to sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O3) is usually 1: 2

      Titration of yo solutionyes according to Archer G11 Molarity Na2S2O3 (M) Molar mass of NaClO (g) Unit test Volume of original bleach (ml) Volume of diluted bleach (ml) Mass of most part (g) ki Initial visible burette (ml) Final reading of burette (ml) Volume relative added Na2S2O3 (ml) Average excess volume (ml) Moles of combined Na2S2O3 (mol) Average amount of added moles Moles of ClO- in water Diluted bleach Average molarity compared to ClO- in diluted bleach (M) Molarity of original bleach (M) Mass NaClO Mass commercially available bleach Percentage of NaClO in advertising bleach water (%) Standard deviation of each individual test (ml) Percentage error (%)

      25 2.0021 14.5 14.5 1.45 × 10-3

      0.100 74.44 Test 2 5 only two 25.0007 14.5 29 14.5 13.8 1.45 × 10-3 1.38 × 10-3 6.92 × 10-4 0.0277 0.553 0.2 5, 4 3.81 0.89 23.7

      The volume of Na2S2O3, if added, implies (final burette reading) – (initial burette reading) Test 1: 14.5 – = 14, ML 5 Test 2: twenty-nine – 14.5 = 14.5 ml Test 3: 41, 5-29 = 12.5 ml average added volume = £ (volume added Na2S2O3) three (14.5 + 14.5 + 12.5) multiple = 13.83 ml added m L Na2S2O3 = (volume of added Na2S2O3) (molarity Na2S2O3) Experiment 3 1: 0.0145 × 0.100 = 1, × 5 10–3 mol Na2S2O3 Experiment 2: 0.0145 × 0.100 = 1.45 × 10–3 mol Na2S2O3 Experiment 3: 0.0125 × 0.100 = 1.25 × 10 -3 for many of us, the average added mole of Na2S2O3 implies (average volume – added) (molarity of Na2S2O3)

      Test 3 25 2.0000 29 41.5 12.5 1.25 × 10-3

      Archer G11 0.01383 × 0.100 = 1.383 × 10-3. Na2S2O3 mol mol ClO- in diluted bleach = (average number of added moles) · 2 (1.383 × · 10-3) only two = 6.915 × 10-4 mol ClO Average molarity of ClO – in diluted bleach = (mol ClO- in diluted chlorine bleach) à (volume of diluted bleach) (6.915 · 10-4) 0.025 corresponds to 0.02766 M ClO. Polarity miscellaneous = bleach [(average molarity of diluted ClO-) × (0.100 × L)] (Volume of original bleach) (0.02766 × 0.100) × 0.005 implies 0.5532 M. The mass of NaClO is [(molar of original bleach) × ( volume of starting bleach ×)] (molar block of NaClO) (0.5532 × 0.005) × 74.44 = 0.259 g mass of commercially available bleach = (density among commercially available bleaches) × (volume of basic bleach) 1.08 x 5 = 5.4 percent g NaClO in this commercialavailable bleach = [(mass of NaClO) · (mass of bleach is commercially available)] × 100% (0.2059 5, 4) × 100% = 3.813% standard deviation of the experiment = Î £ | (volume of added Na2S2O3) – (average added volume) | à · two (| 14.5 – 13.83 | + | 14.5 – 13.83 | + | 12.5 – 13.83 |) à · 3 = 0.89 milliliters of percentage error = [(Actual percentage of total NaClO in commercial bleach) (Percentage – NaClO in private bleach)] à · (Actual percentage of NaClO in commercial bleach)] × 100% [(5–3.81) · – 5] 100 = 23.74% Analysis: The dignity hypothesis is not confirmed. Is it because the results obtained in the experiment correspond to p. C. The error is 23%, showing that this method is inaccurate. Oxidation usually refers to the loss of electrons, resulting in an element in a higher oxidation state. On the other hand, reduction refers to the absorption of electrons, resulting in an element with a more negative oxidation state.

      Cl is often oxidized in the oxidation range from 0 to 1+

      Archer G11 Cl reduced from 0 to 1 –

      I- oxidized 8- pt 1 / 3-

      I2 reduced from 0 to 1/3. The advantage of using an aliquot is that the molarity of the bleach iscan you get closer to the molarity of Na2S2O3. The use of this bleach with a molarity similar to that commonly used for Na2S2O3 allows titration as an accurate measurement. Typically, several aliquots can be measured into a large 100 ml volumetric flask. However, you will probably end up with just under 25 ml as the best solution stays inside the bottle. S in S4O62 – probably of all, has the same oxidation state of 2.5. If the pipette was rinsed with distilled water just before actual use, the percentage of NaClO in commercially available bleach would also be low. This is because distilled water remaining in the pipette during rinsing will further dilute the company’s bleach. Therefore, a smaller total amount of Na2S2O3 should be used, especially for titrating a solution. If you use three grams of KI instead of grams, two of them will not affect the percentage of NaClO in commercial bleach. This is usually due to the fact that the I – ions react purely with ClO – until the reaction is complete and the remainingThe lal I – the special thing – will just be an excess. If some of the I ions in the solution were too elegant, this would not affect the solution at all, since there are enough I ions for all reactions. The main reason for trial and error is the difficulty of determining the end point during a scheduled titration until the gradual completion of the solution change. Conclusion: the hypothesis would certainly be quite reliable. The results are not entirely consistent with the hypothesis. There are good reasons for this. The error may be that the titration to be performed was not performed correctly. Due to the gradual color change due to titration, the end point was difficult to determine. During the first half of the titration, the solution gradually changes from reddish brown to dark orange, then to light orange, and then to yellow. Therefore, it is possible that the titration was stopped before reaching the end point. This would mean that the amount of added Na2S2O3 was below the normal value. This will reduce the amount of Na producedClO, which will reduce the percentage of NaClO in your commercial bleach. Another mistake can often be that the dilution of the lighting advertisement was done inaccurately. The dilution of commercial bleach appears to have been carried out using a 250 ml Erlenmeyer flask, the volume of which may not have been accurately determined. In fact, this could lead to the addition of too much distilled water and too much dilution of the bleach. Consequently, this can be affected by the fact that commercial bleach is actually too diluted and therefore reduces the amount of Na2S2O3 required to titrate the solution. This would actually result in a lower percentage of NaClO than commercial bleach. The malfunction can be rectified with a working pH meter. End-point marking is indeed associated with rapid pH changes. Therefore, using a pH meter can certainly help determine all titration endpoints. The error in seconds can be corrected usinggraduated cylinder instead of a volumetric flask to reduce cost. This

      The Archer G11 would be useful because our graduated cylinder has more accurate volume measurement lines than a volumetric flask.

      To learn more…

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